Friday, April 15, 2011




Research Lead:

Dr. Aubrey Mendonca, ChemRoutes Corporation Academic Lead:

Dr. Michael Woodside, University of Alberta Project:

“Testing potential chemical chaperones for prions with single-molecule spectroscopies”

The proposal outlines screening and development of new and novel small molecule compounds that will act as “chaperones” for native prion proteins whose function is to prevent misfolding into the pathogenic PrPSc form. This will provide clues and insight into understanding prion protein structure, and as the definitive goal, provide compounds that will be able to protect or treat prion associated diseases. Screening is multi step and complex. Initial screen of developed small molecules will be done by fluorescene correlation sprectroscopy (FCS) in order to discern compounds that will bind to prion proteins. Screening moves through cross-correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis. Finally, using single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) the effect of identified hits on individual prion proteins will be resolved.

Funding: $1,125,000 Alberta Prion Research Institute

$350,000 PrioNet Canada (academic researcher support)

$6,000,000 ChemRoutes Corporation Cash and in-kind

$2,500,000 The National Institute for Nanotechnology (NINT) contribution

$3,000,000 nanoWorks, Technology Futures (formerly Alberta Ingenuity Fund)

$12,975,000 TOTAL

Research Lead: Industries Sanimax Corporation & JOFE Services Group Academic Lead: Dr. David Bressler, University of Alberta Project: “Development of Value-Added Applications derived from Rendering By-product Streams including Specified Risk Materials (SRMs)”

This aim of this is to add value to the rendering stream by developing and commercializing applications for protein rich rendering byproducts,some of which represent a burden to the industry as they are destined for the landfill due to regulations surrounding the use of SRM. The scientific approach to this research involves first hydrolyzing the rendered material using two approved hydrolysis methods. Results show that for both blood meal and meat and bone meal, the alkaline method hydrolyzed the protein to a greater extent than the thermal method. Despite such increased destruction, both methods yielded hydrolysis products that were successfully incorporated into the second step: crosslinking. Initial cross-linking resulted in the formation of polymeric compounds that could potentially be used in bioapplications. Screening of additional cross-linking agents and end product characterization is ongoing, and results are communicated to the industrial partner, Sanimax, to align the scientific progress with marketing and communication strategies and efforts. This program originated as an industry driven applied research project with the goal of commercializing technologies to provide an additional market revenue stream for the rendering industry.

Funding: $ 255,000 Alberta Prion Research Institute

$ 255,000 APRI SRM-CAP Program

$ 300,000 PrioNet Canada (academic researcher support)

$ 170,000 cash Sanimax Corporation

$ 170,000 In-kind Sanimax Corporation

$ 1,125,000 In-kind University of Alberta

$ 2,275,000 TOTAL

Research Lead: Dr. Norman Neumann, University of Alberta Project: “Defining the Fate of BSE and CWD in Specified Risk Materials Treated by Composting, Biodigestion, Thermal hydrolysis and/or Advanced Oxidation”

See Targeted Areas Program for project description

Funding: $498,536

A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Voluntary BSE Testing of Cattle

Al Mussell, Kevin Grier, Claudia Schmidt, Wayne Martin, Darryl Robinson, John Cranfield, Kurt Klein, Ted Schroeder, and Ron Doering

January, 2011

Executive Summary

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the costs and benefits of voluntary testing for BSE in cattle at, or before, slaughter. To that end, the following were undertaken:

The veterinary epidemiology literature on BSE was reviewed

Selected agricultural economics literature on BSE was reviewed

A survey of industry participants was conducted to evaluate demand for a BSE tested product

The cost of implementing BSE testing using post mortem and ante mortem testing procedures was estimated

Consumer research was conducted in Canada to evaluate the demand for BSE tested product

The policy and regulatory context for a BSE test was reviewed

An overview of the strategic context for a BSE test was developed


The results showed the following:

Given the scope of Canadian SRM removal (which is the key approach to safeguarding the human food supply) and the age at which fed cattle are slaughtered, post mortem BSE testing of them is extraordinarily unlikely to identify infected animals or indicate progress toward BSE eradication. Its value is essentially determined by the preferences of customers for, and value assigned to, tested product. An ante mortem test has less certain prospects, as only one of the approaches appears to be close to commercial reality, and practically speaking this could easily take five or more years for it to reach the Canadian market if validated. It is similarly unclear whether live BSE tests in development could detect positive BSE cases in younger cattle than the existing post mortem tests.

The US and Canadian consumers appear only weakly inclined to pay for BSE testing, compared with certain other countries like Japan. BSE testing is not a panacea- it is not a market access opener by itself, and it is not the only way of enhancing perceived safety in the system as there are other approaches such as tracking and tracing. As noted, the major ways of protecting human foods from BSE are through implementation of the Enhanced feed ban, removal of specified risk materials (SRM), and traceability.

The essential economic basis upon which to evaluate testing is the following:

* What benefit can be expected from testing due to increased market access and/or price premiums, relative to

* Adverse market impacts resulting from testing, such as lower prices or decreased market access for non-tested product, and

* The direct cost of implementing testing.

Canadian processors and exporters are not seeing requests for BSE-tested product. However, one major Japanese importer has directly requested it, and a senior meat trader knowledgeable with the Japanese market saw BSE testing as a potentially effective strategy to exploit Canada‘s niche in Asian markets. On balance, there appears to be customer interest in a tested product, but it will require marketing effort and development as importers are unlikely to take the lead.

Given the current estimates about the low prevalence of BSE in our national herd and the even lower likelihood of detecting infection in animals under 24 months of age, BSE testing under a voluntary test is expected to be relatively inexpensive.

For the post mortem test, the anticipated cost is just over $40/head, comprised almost entirely of the cost of the test kit and sample analysis. For the prospective ante mortem test, the expected cost is $15/head with the dominant proportion of the cost associated with veterinary oversight of sample collection.

Canadian consumers indicated some willingness to purchase a beef product that had been tested for BSE, but BSE testing is not viewed as 'trumping' other aspects of a beef product; there remains a clear tradeoff between BSE testing and other product attributes, notably freshness and price. Labeling of beef products that had been tested for BSE did appear to confuse more broadly held perceptions regarding the safety of Canadian beef, as about 20% of consumers appeared to have a more negative attitude regarding the safety of Canadian beef when product labeled tested was available. Conversely when exported product was tested but domestic product was not, only about 13% perceived untested domestic product as less safe than tested exports.

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has extensive approval authority in regards to a BSE test, as well as extensive discretion regarding how that authority is used. Current CFIA policy and perspective is not supportive of a test; it is quite conservative in nature. CFIA approval for the test would not be readily forthcoming. The Alberta government appears also to have a view on the merits of BSE testing consistent with that of CFIA.

Canada is among the smallest of the significant beef exporting countries. Among the major exporters, none currently test for BSE beyond surveillance measures. Australia and New Zealand have livestock identification systems in place, but the other major exporters do not. It is not expected that the other major exporters will begin testing for BSE apart from surveillance because they are either negligible risk for BSE, or lack a livestock identification system to manage the process. In most Asian markets, Canada‘s effective competitors are Australia and New Zealand supplying mostly grass-fed product, and the US supplying grain-fed product; South American competitors are faced with access issues relating to foot and mouth disease (FMD). Meanwhile, the Canadian cow herd is in structural decline, but the Canadian cattle slaughter has remained relatively constant. This has occurred as the segments of the cattle industry have been reeling from losses due to a structurally stronger Canadian currency and feed costs that are structurally stronger than that in the US.

The economic results observed in this study are supportive of a latent export market for tested product. The evidence supporting this includes written testament by would-be Japanese buyers to an Alberta processor, as well as presentations and appeals made by Japanese meat importers. This market potential would be as a niche, and the nature of these markets is such that its potential would need to be developed proactively. A range of considerations arise in terms of potential adverse market impacts with voluntary BSE testing and would need to be appropriately addressed. Testing works against Canada’s position that trade rules be science based. However, if it is viewed as marketing based on customer preference rather than abandoning a scientific perspective, it is unclear that this is a significant issue nor that it sets an ominous precedent. Prior examples include a willingness on behalf of Canada to adopt hormone-free protocols for beef exported to the European Union (EU), and a willingness to segregate certain genetic modification (GM)-free grains.

Some consumers perceive non-tested product as unsafe. This possibility was tested in consumer research in this study, and it was observed that only a core committed subset of Canadians would adopt this view. However, the risk of potential domestic consumer pushback of allowing testing for export marketing purposes suggests caution and would require close monitoring and management. There are no price premiums for tested product. The detailed analysis done by Rancher‘s Beef in 2005 suggested that, for a range of cuts preferred in Japan, prices are higher than in Canada. The anticipation here is that Canadian tested beef could be well positioned to take market share from grass-fed beef in the Japanese market. According to the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Japanese beef consumption in 2010 was about 1.2 million metric tonnes; with Canadian exports to Japan currently at about 10,000 tonnes, even if Canadian exports sharply increased it should not be expected to materially affect prices in Japan.

CFIA is not supportive of testing. CFIA has taken a very conservative position relative to testing, and Canadian proponents of voluntary BSE testing would need to engage the CFIA on this. If it is indeed the case that testing could create significant benefit at low risk and low cost, this analysis should be presented to CFIA and advocated as being in the public interest; at a minimum, it must be acknowledged by the CFIA that the current situation itself constitutes risk in terms of lost market opportunity and associated revenue impacts. Trade risks from testing. The principal risk associated with voluntary testing from a trade perspective is that it results in more positive cases being observed. This risk is understood to be very low in cattle aged Under Thirty Months (UTM). However, if this occurred it could diminish Canada‘s reputation and prolong its 'controlled risk' status.

At the same time, there is a trade risk associated with not testing, arising from not expanding exports to the Japanese market, and perhaps other export markets. The costs associated with implementing a BSE test are relatively low. Based on actual budgeted costs for a plant in Alberta and on required changes in plant engineering/operations, the quantifiable costs of a post mortem test is expected to be just over $40/head. A prospective ante mortem test is expected to cost about $15/head. These results suggest that the economic potential is likely to exist to successfully market a BSE-tested product in Asian export markets, with Japan the focus here. This market potential would be as a niche, and the nature of these markets is such that the potential that may exist for tested product will need to be developed proactively; it will not be motivated nor developed by importers themselves with a request then coming to exporters. Thus, a latent market benefit to a BSE-tested product is envisioned, but clearly more work is required to understand its nature and measure its potential size. Implications and Conclusions The results of this study are consistent with an economic benefit from allowing a voluntary test for BSE, with some qualifications. The target market for the tested product is Japan, it is by nature a market niche, and developing a market for tested product will require initiative and effort on behalf of Canadian beef marketers; based on analysis relating to Japan, Asian importers are unlikely to provide the initiative. As with the roll out of any new product, due diligence is required and, as such, more formal market research is warranted in Asian target markets prior to proceeding. The positioning of such an initiative domestically requires some sensitivity, as the results show that the prospect of a BSE tested product in export markets could negatively affect the perception of beef on behalf of a small proportion (13%) of Canadian consumers surveyed.

The Japanese market has long been seen as a premium market for beef. It supplies well under half of its domestic market, and has been testing cattle for BSE since 2001. Beef in Japan was labeled as tested until about 2007 but this has fallen away. Domestic product remains a premium product in Japan, but there is some preference in favour of grain-fed import products. The benefits of allowing testing foreseen here relate to better satisfying market demand and increasing sales, leading to improved market access, in export markets where BSE testing is a valued attribute. In this study Japan was the focus, and it was clear that a latent interest exists in accessing Canadian BSE tested product. Under post mortem testing technology, the costs of implementing testing in fed cattle appear surprisingly low, contingent on a low prevalence of positive cases. It is also evident that the presence of a BSE tested export product would not significantly cannibalize the domestic market for non-tested product, as 70% of respondents perceived untested beef in Canada as no less safe and perceived that tested exports are either safer or no less safe; 13% perceived non-tested product available in Canada as less safe and tested exports to be safer. Ante mortem testing presents less certain prospects (EFSA, 2006, 2007), but is expected to be less costly to implement.

The drawbacks of allowing testing relate to the potential to negatively impact consumer attitudes toward untested beef, lack of support from regulators, and the prospect that testing, especially under a future ante mortem test, might identify positive cases and adversely impact Canada‘s BSE risk status.


Friday, August 29, 2008


United States Court of Appeals FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CIRCUIT Argued May 9, 2008 Decided August 29, 2008 No. 07-5173 CREEKSTONE FARMS PREMIUM BEEF, L.L.C., APPELLEE/CROSS-APPELLANT v. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AND EDWARD T. SCHAFER, SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE, APPELLANTS/CROSS-APPELLEES Consolidated with NO. 07-5199 Appeals from the United States District Court for the District of Columbia (No. 06cv00544) Eric Fleisig-Greene, Attorney, United States Department of Justice, argued the cause for the appellants/cross-appellees. Jeffrey S. Bucholtz, Acting Assistant Attorney General, Jeffrey A. Taylor, United States Attorney, and Mark B. Stern and Michael S. Raab, Attorneys, United States Department of Justice, were on brief. James J. Gilligan, Attorney, United States Department of Justice, and R. Craig Lawrence, Assistant United States Attorney, entered appearances.




"which includes the ___elimination___ of Prion activities ($5,473,000),"

All Other Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases CDC‘s FY 2012 request of $52,658,000 for all other emerging and zoonotic infectious disease activities is a decrease of $13,607,000 below the FY 2010 level, which includes the elimination of Prion activities ($5,473,000), a reduction for other cross-cutting infectious disease activities, and administrative savings. These funds support a range of critical emerging and zoonotic infectious disease programs such Lyme Disease, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and Special Pathogens, as well as other activities described below.


Sunday, April 3, 2011


Tuesday, April 5, 2011

Action Plan National Program 103 Animal Health 2012-2017 PRIONS AND TRANSMISSIBLE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY

Action Plan National Program 103 Animal Health 2012-2017


WITH more and more atypical Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy cases showing up in more and more species here in North America, and the enormous monumental amount of banned mad cow protein in commerce since the infamous partial and voluntary mad cow feed ban inked on paper, with tons and tons crossing back and forth between the USA, Canada, and Mexico, it just does not surprise me of all these "PENDING CLASSIFICATIONS" of human TSE in Canada, and the USA. UK c-BSE transmitted to humans became nvCJD. WE now have atypical strains of BSE in cattle. Mission Texas experiments long ago showed that transmitted USA sheep scrapie to USA bovine, produced a TSE much different than the UK typical c-BSE. SO why would human TSE in the USA look like UK human TSE ? The corruption is mind boggling. The UK saw a suspicious TSE in humans, and science linked it to cattle. North America is awash with human and animal TSE, CJD is rising in young and old, with the same pathology and same symptoms, and none of it is related to the other. isn't that nice. who, what, bestowed such miracles upon North America $

Archive Number 20100405.1091 Published Date 05-APR-2010

Subject PRO/AH/EDR> Prion disease update 1010 (04)


[Terry S. Singeltary Sr. has added the following comment:

"According to the World Health Organisation, the future public health threat of vCJD in the UK and Europe and potentially the rest of the world is of concern and currently unquantifiable. However, the possibility of a significant and geographically diverse vCJD epidemic occurring over the next few decades cannot be dismissed


The key word here is diverse. What does diverse mean? If USA scrapie transmitted to USA bovine does not produce pathology as the UK c-BSE, then why would CJD from there look like UK vCJD?",F2400_P1001_PUB_MAIL_ID:1000,82101

Sunday, April 17, 2011

Transmission of Prion Strains in a Transgenic Mouse Model Overexpressing Human A53T Mutated [alpha]-Synuclein


CJD Deaths Reported by CJDSS1, 1994-20112 As of January 31, 2011

3. Final classification of 49 cases from 2009, 2010, 2011 is pending.


USA 2011


National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center

Cases Examined1

(November 1, 2010)

Year Total Referrals2 Prion Disease Sporadic Familial Iatrogenic vCJD

1996 & earlier 51 33 28 5 0 0

1997 114 68 59 9 0 0

1998 87 51 43 7 1 0

1999 121 73 65 8 0 0

2000 146 103 89 14 0 0

2001 209 119 109 10 0 0

2002 248 149 125 22 2 0

2003 274 176 137 39 0 0

2004 325 186 164 21 0 13

2005 344 194 157 36 1 0

2006 383 197 166 29 0 24

2007 377 214 187 27 0 0

2008 394 231 205 25 0 0

2009 425 258 215 43 0 0

2010 333 213 158 33 0 0

TOTAL 38315 22656 1907 328 4 3

1 Listed based on the year of death or, if not available, on year of referral;

2 Cases with suspected prion disease for which brain tissue and/or blood (in familial cases) were submitted;

3 Disease acquired in the United Kingdom;

4 Disease was acquired in the United Kingdom in one case and in Saudi Arabia in the other case;

5 Includes 18 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 18 inconclusive cases;

6 Includes 23 (22 from 2010) cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded.

Please notice where sporadic CJD cases in 1996 went from 28 cases, to 215 cases in 2009, the highest recorded year to date. sporadic CJD is on a steady rise, and has been since 1996.

I also urge you to again notice these disturbing factors in lines 5 and 6 ;

5 Includes 18 cases in which the diagnosis is pending, and 18 inconclusive cases;

6 Includes 23 (22 from 2010) cases with type determination pending in which the diagnosis of vCJD has been excluded.


Monday, August 9, 2010

National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center Cases Examined (July 31, 2010)

(please watch and listen to the video and the scientist speaking about atypical BSE and sporadic CJD and listen to Professor Aguzzi)

Atypical BSE (BASE) Transmitted from Asymptomatic Aging Cattle to a Primate

Emmanuel E. Comoy1*, Cristina Casalone2, Nathalie Lescoutra-Etchegaray1, Gianluigi Zanusso3, Sophie Freire1, Dominique Marcé1, Frédéric Auvré1, Marie-Magdeleine Ruchoux1, Sergio Ferrari3, Salvatore Monaco3, Nicole Salès4, Maria Caramelli2, Philippe Leboulch1,5, Paul Brown1, Corinne I. Lasmézas4, Jean-Philippe Deslys1

1 Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses, France, 2 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Turin, Italy, 3 Policlinico G.B. Rossi, Verona, Italy, 4 Scripps Florida, Jupiter, Florida, United States of America, 5 Genetics Division, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America

Abstract Top Background Human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) results from foodborne transmission of prions from slaughtered cattle with classical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (cBSE). Atypical forms of BSE, which remain mostly asymptomatic in aging cattle, were recently identified at slaughterhouses throughout Europe and North America, raising a question about human susceptibility to these new prion strains.

Methodology/Principal Findings Brain homogenates from cattle with classical BSE and atypical (BASE) infections were inoculated intracerebrally into cynomolgus monkeys (Macacca fascicularis), a non-human primate model previously demonstrated to be susceptible to the original strain of cBSE. The resulting diseases were compared in terms of clinical signs, histology and biochemistry of the abnormal prion protein (PrPres). The single monkey infected with BASE had a shorter survival, and a different clinical evolution, histopathology, and prion protein (PrPres) pattern than was observed for either classical BSE or vCJD-inoculated animals. Also, the biochemical signature of PrPres in the BASE-inoculated animal was found to have a higher proteinase K sensitivity of the octa-repeat region. We found the same biochemical signature in three of four human patients with sporadic CJD and an MM type 2 PrP genotype who lived in the same country as the infected bovine.

Conclusion/Significance Our results point to a possibly higher degree of pathogenicity of BASE than classical BSE in primates and also raise a question about a possible link to one uncommon subset of cases of apparently sporadic CJD. Thus, despite the waning epidemic of classical BSE, the occurrence of atypical strains should temper the urge to relax measures currently in place to protect public health from accidental contamination by BSE-contaminated products.

Citation: Comoy EE, Casalone C, Lescoutra-Etchegaray N, Zanusso G, Freire S, et al. (2008) Atypical BSE (BASE) Transmitted from Asymptomatic Aging Cattle to a Primate. PLoS ONE 3(8): e3017. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003017

Editor: Neil Mabbott, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom

Received: April 24, 2008; Accepted: August 1, 2008; Published: August 20, 2008

Copyright: © 2008 Comoy et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: This work has been supported by the Network of Excellence NeuroPrion.

Competing interests: CEA owns a patent covering the BSE diagnostic tests commercialized by the company Bio-Rad.

* E-mail: mhtml:%7B33B38F65-8D2E-434D-8F9B-8BDCD77D3066%7Dmid://00000110/!


BASE Transmitted to Primates and MV2 sCJD Subtype Share PrP27-30 and PrPSc C-terminal Truncated Fragments

Zanusso, G1; Commoy, E2; Fasoli, E3; Fiorini, M3; Lescoutra, N4; Ruchoux, MM4; Casalone, C5; Caramelli, M5; Ferrari, S3; Lasmezas, C6; Deslys, J-P4; Monaco, S3 1University of Verona, of Neurological and Visual Sciences, Italy; 2CEA, IMETI/SEPIA, France; 3University of Verona, Neurological and Visual Sciences, Italy; 4IMETI/SEPIA, France; 5IZSPLVA, Italy; 6The Scripps Research Insitute, USA

The etiology of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), the most frequent human prion disease, remains still unknown. The marked disease phenotype heterogeneity observed in sCJD is thought to be influenced by the type of proteinase K-resistant prion protein, or PrPSc (type 1 or type 2 according to the electrophoretic mobility of the unglycosylated backbone), and by the host polymorphic Methionine/Valine (M/V) codon 129 of the PRNP. By using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and imunoblotting we previously showed that in sCJD, in addition to the PrPSc type, distinct PrPSc C-terminal truncated fragments (CTFs) correlated with different sCJD subtypes. Based on the combination of CTFs and PrPSc type, we distinguished three PrPSc patterns: (i) the first was observed in sCJD with PrPSc type 1 of all genotypes,; (ii) the second was found in M/M-2 (cortical form); (iii) the third in amyloidogenic M/V- 2 and V/V-2 subtypes (Zanusso et al., JBC 2004) . Recently, we showed that sCJD subtype M/V-2 shared molecular and pathological features with an atypical form of BSE, named BASE, thus suggesting a potential link between the two conditions. This connection was further confirmed after 2D-PAGE analysis, which showed an identical PrPSc signature, including the biochemical pattern of CTFs. To pursue this issue, we obtained brain homogenates from Cynomolgus macaques intracerebrally inoculated with brain homogenates from BASE. Samples were separated by using a twodimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) followed by immunoblotting. ***We here show that the PrPSc pattern obtained in infected primates is identical to BASE and sCJD MV-2 subtype. These data strongly support the link, or at least a common ancestry, between a sCJD subtype and BASE. This work was supported by Neuroprion (FOOD-CT-2004-506579)


Transmission of Italian BSE and BASE Isolates in Cattle Results into a Typical BSE Phenotype and a Muscle Wasting Disease

Zanusso, G1; Lombardi, G2; Casalone, C3; D’Angelo, A4; Gelmetti, D2; Torcoli, G2; Barbieri, I2; Corona, C3; Fasoli, E1; Farinazzo, A1; Fiorini, M1; Gelati, M1; Iulini, B3; Tagliavini, F5; Ferrari, S1; Monaco, S1; Caramelli, M3; Capucci, L2 1University of Verona, Neurological and Visual Sciences, Italy; 2IZSLER, Italy; 3IZSPLVA, Italy; 4University of Turin, Animal Pathology, Italy; 5Isituto Carlo Besta, Italy

The clinical phenotype of bovine spongiform encephalopathy has been extensively reported in early accounts of the disorder. Following the introduction of statutory active surveillance, almost all BSE cases have been diagnosed on a pathological/molecular basis, in a pre-symptomatic clinical stage. In recent years, the active surveillance system has uncovered atypical BSE cases, which are characterized by distinct conformers of the PrPSc, named high-type (BSE-H) and low-type (BSE-L), whose clinicopathological phenotypes remain unknown. We recently reported two Italian atypical cases with a PrPSc type similar to BSE-L, pathologically characterized by PrP amyloid plaques. Experimental transmission to TgBov mice has recently disclosed that BASE is caused by a distinct prion strain which is extremely virulent. A major limitation of transmission studies to mice is the lack of reliable information on clinical phenotype of BASE in its natural host. In the present study, we experimentally infected Fresian/Holstein and Alpine/Brown cattle with Italian BSE and BASE isolates by i.c. route. BASE infected cattle showed survival times significantly shorter than BSE, a finding more readily evident in Fresian/Holstein, and in keeping with previous observations in TgBov mice. Clinically, BSE-infected cattle developed a disease phenotype highly comparable with that described in field BSE cases and in experimentally challenged cattle. On the contrary, BASE-inoculated cattle developed an amyotrophic disorder accompanied by mental dullness. The molecular and neuropathological profiles, including PrP deposition pattern, closely matched those observed in the original cases. ***This study further confirms that BASE is caused by a distinct prion isolate and discloses a novel disease phenotype in cattle, closely resembling the phenotype previous reported in scrapie-inoculated cattle and in some subtypes of inherited and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.


Molecular Features of the Protease-resistant Prion Protein (PrPres) in H-type BSE

Biacabe, A-G1; Jacobs, JG2; Gavier-Widén, D3; Vulin, J1; Langeveld, JPM2; Baron, TGM1 1AFSSA, France; 2CIDC-Lelystad, Netherlands; 3SVA, Sweden

Western blot analyses of PrPres accumulating in the brain of BSE-infected cattle have demonstrated 3 different molecular phenotypes regarding to the apparent molecular masses and glycoform ratios of PrPres bands. We initially described isolates (H-type BSE) essentially characterized by higher PrPres molecular mass and decreased levels of the diglycosylated PrPres band, in contrast to the classical type of BSE. This type is also distinct from another BSE phenotype named L-type BSE, or also BASE (for Bovine Amyloid Spongiform Encephalopathy), mainly characterized by a low representation of the diglycosylated PrPres band as well as a lower PrPres molecular mass. Retrospective molecular studies in France of all available BSE cases older than 8 years old and of part of the other cases identified since the beginning of the exhaustive surveillance of the disease in 20001 allowed to identify 7 H-type BSE cases, among 594 BSE cases that could be classified as classical, L- or H-type BSE. By Western blot analysis of H-type PrPres, we described a remarkable specific feature with antibodies raised against the C-terminal region of PrP that demonstrated the existence of a more C-terminal cleaved form of PrPres (named PrPres#2 ), in addition to the usual PrPres form (PrPres #1). In the unglycosylated form, PrPres #2 migrates at about 14 kDa, compared to 20 kDa for PrPres #1. The proportion of the PrPres#2 in cattle seems to by higher compared to the PrPres#1. Furthermore another PK–resistant fragment at about 7 kDa was detected by some more N-terminal antibodies and presumed to be the result of cleavages of both N- and C-terminal parts of PrP. These singular features were maintained after transmission of the disease to C57Bl/6 mice. ***The identification of these two additional PrPres fragments (PrPres #2 and 7kDa band) reminds features reported respectively in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome in humans.

And last but not least, similarities of PrPres between Htype BSE and human prion diseases like CJD or GSS have been put forward [10], as well as between L-type BSE and CJD [17]. These findings raise questions about the origin and inter species transmission of these prion diseases that were discovered through the BSE active surveillance.

full text 18 pages ;

please see full text ;


Transmission of atypical BSE in humanized mouse models

Liuting Qing1, Wenquan Zou1, Cristina Casalone2, Martin Groschup3, Miroslaw Polak4, Maria Caramelli2, Pierluigi Gambetti1, Juergen Richt5, Qingzhong Kong1 1Case Western Reserve University, USA; 2Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale, Italy; 3Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Germany; 4National Veterinary Research Institute, Poland; 5Kansas State University (Previously at USDA National Animal Disease Center), USA

Background: Classical BSE is a world-wide prion disease in cattle, and the classical BSE strain (BSE-C) has led to over 200 cases of clinical human infection (variant CJD). Atypical BSE cases have been discovered in three continents since 2004; they include the L-type (also named BASE), the H-type, and the first reported case of naturally occurring BSE with mutated bovine PRNP (termed BSE-M). The public health risks posed by atypical BSE were largely undefined.

Objectives: To investigate these atypical BSE types in terms of their transmissibility and phenotypes in humanized mice. Methods: Transgenic mice expressing human PrP were inoculated with several classical (C-type) and atypical (L-, H-, or Mtype) BSE isolates, and the transmission rate, incubation time, characteristics and distribution of PrPSc, symptoms, and histopathology were or will be examined and compared.

Results: Sixty percent of BASE-inoculated humanized mice became infected with minimal spongiosis and an average incubation time of 20-22 months, whereas only one of the C-type BSE-inoculated mice developed prion disease after more than 2 years. Protease-resistant PrPSc in BASE-infected humanized Tg mouse brains was biochemically different from bovine BASE or sCJD. PrPSc was also detected in the spleen of 22% of BASE-infected humanized mice, but not in those infected with sCJD. Secondary transmission of BASE in the humanized mice led to a small reduction in incubation time.*** The atypical BSE-H strain is also transmissible with distinct phenotypes in the humanized mice, but no BSE-M transmission has been observed so far.

Discussion: Our results demonstrate that BASE is more virulent than classical BSE, has a lymphotropic phenotype, and displays a modest transmission barrier in our humanized mice. BSE-H is also transmissible in our humanized Tg mice. The possibility of more than two atypical BSE strains will be discussed.

Supported by NINDS NS052319, NIA AG14359, and NIH AI 77774.


Analysis of Bovine Prion Protein Gene Sequence Variation in Animals with Classical and Atypical BSE

Polak, MP; Larska, M; Rola, J; Zmudzinski, JF National Veterinary Research Institute, Department of Virology, Poland B.

Variation within prion protein gene sequence have major impact on the susceptibility to prion diseases in humans and sheep. However no major differences between healthy cattle and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) affected individuals were identified. Recent studies indicate that susceptibility to bovine spongiform encephalopathy is associated with 23-base pair (bp) and 12-bp indel sequences. Identification of atypical BSE in older cattle in several countries pointed at the possibility of spontaneous origin of this new form of prion disease due to possible mutations within prion gene (PRNP) sequence. A./O. Therefore the aim of the study was to analyze and to compare prion protein gene sequences in animals showing classical and atypical BSE for any genetic traits differentating both forms of the disease. M. Analysis included: octapeptide-repeat polymorphism; sequence analysis of exon 3 region; deletion/insertion polymorphism within the promoter sequence (23-bp), intron 1 (12-bp) and 3’untranslated region - UTR (14-bp) of PRNP gene. R. No major differences were found as for the octapeptide-repeats. Most dominant genotype in both classical and atypical BSE involved 6/6 homozygous animals. Sequence comparison within exon 3 region also showed no differences. Results from indel sequence analysis within three regions of PRNP gene were also quite uniform between both forms of BSE. D. Therefore no genetic traits explaining the appearance of atypical BSE could be found. However, it is too early to reject the hypothesis that genetic makeup is not involved in atypical BSE. Further and more detailed studies including more cases of atypical BSE would be more reliable to draw such a conclusion.


Biological typing of sporadic Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease isolates and comparison with animal prion isolates

Romolo Nonno1, Michele Di Bari1, Laura Pirisinu1, Stefano Marcon1, Claudia D’Agostino1, Elena Esposito1, Paola Fazzi1, Shimon Simson1, Paolo Frassanito1, Cristina Casalone3, Franco Cardone2, Maurizio Pocchiari2, Gabriele Vaccari1, Umberto Agrimi1 1Dept. SPVSA, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy; 2Dept. BCN, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy; 3Istituto Zooprofilattico del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle D’Aosta, Italy

Background: Our incomplete understanding of the nature of TSE agents, along with the current technical limitations in the analysis of PrPSc structure, prevent the direct typing of prion isolates. The characterization of prion strains still relies upon bioassay in rodents. Bank vole (Myodes glareolus), being susceptible to a wide range of prion sources, offers the opportunity to investigate the biological properties of prion isolates from different species in a single model.

Objectives: To study the biological properties of sCJD subtypes and compare them with animal TSEs. Methods: We analysed the phenotype of transmission of MM1, MV1, MM2, MV2, and VV2 sCJD subtypes to voles, in comparison with BSE, BASE and classical scrapie isolates from different EU countries. Molecular analysis of PrPSc from the original isolates preceded voles inoculation. Survival time and attack rate were calculated upon primary transmissions and subsequent passages. The brain of voles were analysed by WB for PrPSc type, by Gnd- HCl denaturation for PrPSc conformational stability, by immunohistochemistry and PET-blot for PrPSc deposition pattern and by E&E for lesion profile.

Results: This study demonstrated that prion diseases induce in voles a variety of molecular and pathological phenotypes. CJD isolates were grouped into 4 categories: i) MM1/MV1 (n=3), ii) MM2 (n=1), iii) MV2 (n=2) and iv) VV2 (n=1). Scrapie isolates were categorised in at least 4 groups, with no overlapping with sCJD isolates. BSE was distinct from scrapie and sCJD phenotypes. Finally, BASE gave a phenotype distinct from BSE and scrapie but indistinguishable from VV2 sCJD.

Discussion: Overall, the biological classification of sCJD subtypes concurs with their clinico-pathological classification.*** Similarities in the transmission pattern of prion isolates from different host species were very rare, with the notable exception of BASE and VV2 sCJD. Herein, the meaning of such similarities is discussed in the context of current knowledge on strains and of available tools for their typing.


Liuting Qing1, Fusong Chen1, Michael Payne1, Wenquan Zou1, Cristina Casalone2, Martin Groschup3, Miroslaw Polak4, Maria Caramelli2, Pierluigi Gambetti1, Juergen Richt5*, and Qingzhong Kong1 1Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA; 2CEA, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale, Italy; 3Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Germany; 4National Veterinary Research Institute, Poland; 5Kansas State University, Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology Department, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA. *Previous address: USDA National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010, USA

Classical BSE is a world-wide prion disease in cattle, and the classical BSE strain (BSE-C) has led to over 200 cases of clinical human infection (variant CJD). Two atypical BSE strains, BSE-L (also named BASE) and BSE-H, have been discovered in three continents since 2004. The first case of naturally occurring BSE with mutated bovine PrP gene (termed BSE-M) was also found in 2006 in the USA. The transmissibility and phenotypes of these atypical BSE strains/isolates in humans were unknown. We have inoculated humanized transgenic mice with classical and atypical BSE strains (BSE-C, BSE-L, BSE-H) and the BSE-M isolate. We have found that the atypical BSE-L strain is much more virulent than the classical BSE-C.*** The atypical BSE-H strain is also transmissible in the humanized transgenic mice with distinct phenotype, but no transmission has been observed for the BSE-M isolate so far.


I ask Professor Kong ;

Thursday, December 04, 2008 3:37 PM Subject: RE: re--Chronic Wating Disease (CWD) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathies (BSE): Public Health Risk Assessment

''IS the h-BSE more virulent than typical BSE as well, or the same as cBSE, or less virulent than cBSE? just curious.....''

Professor Kong reply ;


''As to the H-BSE, we do not have sufficient data to say one way or another, but we have found that H-BSE can infect humans. I hope we could publish these data once the study is complete. Thanks for your interest.''

Best regards, Qingzhong Kong, PhD Associate Professor Department of Pathology Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH 44106 USA


BSE prions propagate as either variant CJD-like or sporadic CJD-like prion strains in transgenic mice expressing human prion protein

Emmanuel A. Asante, Jacqueline M. Linehan, Melanie Desbruslais, Susan Joiner, Ian Gowland, Andrew L. Wood, Julie Welch, Andrew F. Hill, Sarah E. Lloyd, Jonathan D.F. Wadsworth, and John Collinge1 MRC Prion Unit and Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, University College, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK 1Corresponding author e-mail: August 1, 2002; Revised September 24, 2002; Accepted October 17, 2002.

The EMBO Journal (2002) 21, 6358 - 6366 doi:10.1093/emboj/cdf653

BSE prions propagate as either variant CJD-like or sporadic CJD-like prion strains in transgenic mice expressing human prion protein

Emmanuel A. Asante1, Jacqueline M. Linehan1, Melanie Desbruslais1, Susan Joiner1, Ian Gowland1, Andrew L. Wood1, Julie Welch1, Andrew F. Hill1, Sarah E. Lloyd1, Jonathan D.F. Wadsworth1 and John Collinge1

1.MRC Prion Unit and Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, University College, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK Correspondence to:

John Collinge, E-mail:

Received 1 August 2002; Accepted 17 October 2002; Revised 24 September 2002



Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD) has been recognized to date only in individuals homozygous for methionine at PRNP codon 129. Here we show that transgenic mice expressing human PrP methionine 129, inoculated with either bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or variant CJD prions, may develop the neuropathological and molecular phenotype of vCJD, consistent with these diseases being caused by the same prion strain. Surprisingly, however, BSE transmission to these transgenic mice, in addition to producing a vCJD-like phenotype, can also result in a distinct molecular phenotype that is indistinguishable from that of sporadic CJD with PrPSc type 2. These data suggest that more than one BSE-derived prion strain might infect humans; it is therefore possible that some patients with a phenotype consistent with sporadic CJD may have a disease arising from BSE exposure.

Keywords:BSE, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, prion, transgenic

The most recent assessments (and reassessments) were published in June 2005 (Table I; 18), and included the categorisation of Canada, the USA, and Mexico as GBR III. Although only Canada and the USA have reported cases, the historically open system of trade in North America suggests that it is likely that BSE is present also in Mexico.

Friday, March 4, 2011

Alberta dairy cow found with mad cow disease

Wednesday, March 31, 2010

Atypical BSE in Cattle

To date the OIE/WAHO assumes that the human and animal health standards set out in the BSE chapter for classical BSE (C-Type) applies to all forms of BSE which include the H-type and L-type atypical forms. This assumption is scientifically not completely justified and accumulating evidence suggests that this may in fact not be the case. Molecular characterization and the spatial distribution pattern of histopathologic lesions and immunohistochemistry (IHC) signals are used to identify and characterize atypical BSE. Both the L-type and H-type atypical cases display significant differences in the conformation and spatial accumulation of the disease associated prion protein (PrPSc) in brains of afflicted cattle. Transmission studies in bovine transgenic and wild type mouse models support that the atypical BSE types might be unique strains because they have different incubation times and lesion profiles when compared to C-type BSE. When L-type BSE was inoculated into ovine transgenic mice and Syrian hamster the resulting molecular fingerprint had changed, either in the first or a subsequent passage, from L-type into C-type BSE. In addition, non-human primates are specifically susceptible for atypical BSE as demonstrated by an approximately 50% shortened incubation time for L-type BSE as compared to C-type. Considering the current scientific information available, it cannot be assumed that these different BSE types pose the same human health risks as C-type BSE or that these risks are mitigated by the same protective measures.

This study will contribute to a correct definition of specified risk material (SRM) in atypical BSE. The incumbent of this position will develop new and transfer existing, ultra-sensitive methods for the detection of atypical BSE in tissue of experimentally infected cattle.


please see all seven threats listed in the USA, and more...FULL TEXT ;

Thursday, August 12, 2010

Seven main threats for the future linked to prions

First threat

The TSE road map defining the evolution of European policy for protection against prion diseases is based on a certain numbers of hypotheses some of which may turn out to be erroneous. In particular, a form of BSE (called atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy), recently identified by systematic testing in aged cattle without clinical signs, may be the origin of classical BSE and thus potentially constitute a reservoir, which may be impossible to eradicate if a sporadic origin is confirmed. ***Also, a link is suspected between atypical BSE and some apparently sporadic cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. These atypical BSE cases constitute an unforeseen first threat that could sharply modify the European approach to prion diseases.

Second threat


14th ICID International Scientific Exchange Brochure -

Final Abstract Number: ISE.114

Session: International Scientific Exchange

Transmissible Spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) animal and human TSE in North America

update October 2009

T. Singeltary

Bacliff, TX, USA


An update on atypical BSE and other TSE in North America. Please remember, the typical U.K. c-BSE, the atypical l-BSE (BASE), and h-BSE have all been documented in North America, along with the typical scrapie's, and atypical Nor-98 Scrapie, and to date, 2 different strains of CWD, and also TME. All these TSE in different species have been rendered and fed to food producing animals for humans and animals in North America (TSE in cats and dogs ?), and that the trading of these TSEs via animals and products via the USA and Canada has been immense over the years, decades.


12 years independent research of available data


I propose that the current diagnostic criteria for human TSEs only enhances and helps the spreading of human TSE from the continued belief of the UKBSEnvCJD only theory in 2009. With all the science to date refuting it, to continue to validate this old myth, will only spread this TSE agent through a multitude of potential routes and sources i.e. consumption, medical i.e., surgical, blood, dental, endoscopy, optical, nutritional supplements, cosmetics etc.


I would like to submit a review of past CJD surveillance in the USA, and the urgent need to make all human TSE in the USA a reportable disease, in every state, of every age group, and to make this mandatory immediately without further delay. The ramifications of not doing so will only allow this agent to spread further in the medical, dental, surgical arena's. Restricting the reporting of CJD and or any human TSE is NOT scientific. Iatrogenic CJD knows NO age group, TSE knows no boundaries. I propose as with Aguzzi, Asante, Collinge, Caughey, Deslys, Dormont, Gibbs, Gajdusek, Ironside, Manuelidis, Marsh, et al and many more, that the world of TSE Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy is far from an exact science, but there is enough proven science to date that this myth should be put to rest once and for all, and that we move forward with a new classification for human and animal TSE that would properly identify the infected species, the source species, and then the route.


Liuting Qing1, Fusong Chen1, Michael Payne1, Wenquan Zou1, Cristina Casalone2, Martin Groschup3, Miroslaw Polak4, Maria Caramelli2, Pierluigi Gambetti1, Juergen Richt5*, and Qingzhong Kong1 1Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA; 2CEA, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale, Italy; 3Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Germany; 4National Veterinary Research Institute, Poland; 5Kansas State University, Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology Department, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA. *Previous address: USDA National Animal Disease Center, Ames, IA 50010, USA

Classical BSE is a world-wide prion disease in cattle, and the classical BSE strain (BSE-C) has led to over 200 cases of clinical human infection (variant CJD). Two atypical BSE strains, BSE-L (also named BASE) and BSE-H, have been discovered in three continents since 2004. The first case of naturally occurring BSE with mutated bovine PrP gene (termed BSE-M) was also found in 2006 in the USA. The transmissibility and phenotypes of these atypical BSE strains/isolates in humans were unknown. We have inoculated humanized transgenic mice with classical and atypical BSE strains (BSE-C, BSE-L, BSE-H) and the BSE-M isolate. We have found that the atypical BSE-L strain is much more virulent than the classical BSE-C. The atypical BSE-H strain is also transmissible in the humanized transgenic mice with distinct phenotype, but no transmission has been observed for the BSE-M isolate so far.


Saturday, January 29, 2011

Atypical L-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (L-BSE) Transmission to Cynomolgus Macaques, a Non-Human Primate

Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., 64 (1), 81-84, 2011

Tuesday, November 02, 2010

BSE - ATYPICAL LESION DISTRIBUTION (RBSE 92-21367) statutory (obex only) diagnostic criteria CVL 1992

Tuesday, July 14, 2009

U.S. Emergency Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Response Plan Summary and BSE Red Book Date: February 14, 2000 at 8:56 am PST

WHERE did we go wrong $$$


Molecular characterization of BSE in Canada

Jianmin Yang1, Sandor Dudas2, Catherine Graham2, Markus Czub3, Tim McAllister1, Stefanie Czub1 1Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centre, Canada; 2National and OIE BSE Reference Laboratory, Canada; 3University of Calgary, Canada

Background: Three BSE types (classical and two atypical) have been identified on the basis of molecular characteristics of the misfolded protein associated with the disease. To date, each of these three types have been detected in Canadian cattle.

Objectives: This study was conducted to further characterize the 16 Canadian BSE cases based on the biochemical properties of there associated PrPres. Methods: Immuno-reactivity, molecular weight, glycoform profiles and relative proteinase K sensitivity of the PrPres from each of the 16 confirmed Canadian BSE cases was determined using modified Western blot analysis.

Results: Fourteen of the 16 Canadian BSE cases were C type, 1 was H type and 1 was L type. The Canadian H and L-type BSE cases exhibited size shifts and changes in glycosylation similar to other atypical BSE cases. PK digestion under mild and stringent conditions revealed a reduced protease resistance of the atypical cases compared to the C-type cases. N terminal- specific antibodies bound to PrPres from H type but not from C or L type. The C-terminal-specific antibodies resulted in a shift in the glycoform profile and detected a fourth band in the Canadian H-type BSE.

Discussion: The C, L and H type BSE cases in Canada exhibit molecular characteristics similar to those described for classical and atypical BSE cases from Europe and Japan. This supports the theory that the importation of BSE contaminated feedstuff is the source of C-type BSE in Canada. *It also suggests a similar cause or source for atypical BSE in these countries.

Monday, January 17, 2011

MAD COW Update on Feed Enforcement Activities to Limit the Spread of BSE January 13, 2011

January 2011

Saturday, November 6, 2010

TAFS1 Position Paper on Position Paper on Relaxation of the Feed Ban in the EU Berne, 2010 TAFS


Saturday, June 12, 2010

PUBLICATION REQUEST AND FOIA REQUEST Project Number: 3625-32000-086-05 Study of Atypical Bse

Wednesday, July 28, 2010

re-Freedom of Information Act Project Number 3625-32000-086-05, Study of Atypical BSE UPDATE July 28, 2010

LET'S take a closer look at this new prionpathy or prionopathy, and then let's look at the g-h-BSEalabama mad cow.


In this study, we identified a novel mutation in the bovine prion protein gene (Prnp), called E211K, of a confirmed BSE positive cow from Alabama, United States of America. This mutation is identical to the E200K pathogenic mutation found in humans with a genetic form of CJD. This finding represents the first report of a confirmed case of BSE with a potential pathogenic mutation within the bovine Prnp gene. We hypothesize that the bovine Prnp E211K mutation most likely has caused BSE in "the approximately 10-year-old cow" carrying the E221K mutation.

Saturday, August 14, 2010

BSE Case Associated with Prion Protein Gene Mutation (g-h-BSEalabama) and VPSPr PRIONPATHY

(see mad cow feed in COMMERCE IN ALABAMA...TSS)


her healthy calf also carried the mutation (J. A. Richt and S. M. Hall PLoS Pathog. 4, e1000156; 2008).

This raises the possibility that the disease could occasionally be genetic in origin. Indeed, the report of the UK BSE Inquiry in 2000 suggested that the UK epidemic had most likely originated from such a mutation and argued against the scrapierelated assumption. Such rare potential pathogenic PRNP mutations could occur in countries at present considered to be free of BSE, such as Australia and New Zealand. So it is important to maintain strict surveillance for BSE in cattle, with rigorous enforcement of the ruminant feed ban (many countries still feed ruminant proteins to pigs). Removal of specified risk material, such as brain and spinal cord, from cattle at slaughter prevents infected material from entering the human food chain. Routine genetic screening of cattle for PRNP mutations, which is now available, could provide additional data on the risk to the public. Because the point mutation identified in the Alabama animals is identical to that responsible for the commonest type of familial (genetic) CJD in humans, it is possible that the resulting infective prion protein might cross the bovine–human species barrier more easily. Patients with vCJD continue to be identified. The fact that this is happening less often should not lead to relaxation of the controls necessary to prevent future outbreaks.

Malcolm A. Ferguson-Smith Cambridge University Department of Veterinary Medicine, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK e-mail: Jürgen A. Richt College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, K224B Mosier Hall, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-5601, USA

NATURE|Vol 457|26 February 2009

1st, let's look at the recent science on risk factors of CWD in deer and elk, and the potential for human transmission, is real ;

Wednesday, April 06, 2011

Presence and Seeding Activity of Pathological Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Skeletal Muscles of White-Tailed Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease


Thank you Professor Beekes et al, and again to PLos for open access !

This is another important study showing risk factors that should be taken seriously for human health via CWD, and risk factors there from iatrogenically i.e. via friendly fire or the pass it forward mode of human and animal Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy. in my opinion, we have floundered too long. IN 2001 i brought this up to the O.I.E., and they said they too were concerned, but yet a decade later, they too are still floundering, thus, humans and animals are still being exposed, and more and more science shows that CWD can transmit to humans. ...

kind regards, terry


for anyone interested, please see my comments and source data here ;


Wednesday, April 06, 2011

Presence and Seeding Activity of Pathological Prion Protein (PrPTSE) in Skeletal Muscles of White-Tailed Deer Infected with Chronic Wasting Disease

let's take a closer look shall we ;


A kind greetings from Bacliff, Texas !

please use this information with how ever many grains of salt you wish, i don't care what you eat.

cutting out the high risk cns portions will not do away with all the risk, even if you don't cut yourselves by butcher. they have now found in CWD the prion TSE agent in muscle and fat tissue, now they say with smaller amounts of infectivity, but i personally believe in the accumaltion as a factor of risk as well. seems these prion strains as they mutate, the get more virulent. you accumulate enough of the prions and you become clinical. what the threshold from sub-clinical to clinical would be, would depend on the route, the source, titre of infectivity, and ones genetic make up, and whom you expose and or infect while being sub-clinically exposed via the medical and surgical arena's i.e. friendly fire, is a frightening thought now, and a real risk factor. for them to keep saying that there is no _known_ risk factor to humans, with the cjd surveillance system and diagnostic criteria, they would never know. you are correct about the officials being misinformed and misleading. that's why i post the science behind any reports they publish on CWD, hoping someone will read it. personally i think the deer and elk hunting industry were a pawn in a big game of chess. the king was the cattle industry. they have brain washed every one into believing scrapie will not transmit to man, when all science shows that it will. the deer and elk industry were sacrificed. USDA et al tried to cover up mad cow disease, because the evidence was already out (without using a human guinea pig, which i promote over primates i.e. death row inmates, that's another story though), so they just kept saying cwd would not transmit to humans. when the evidence was the same for BSE to humans as it was for CWD to humans, as with Scrapie, and they knew this in 2000, or earlier. the evidence was the same in that study i.e. raymand et al, no matter how low, or high the risk factor is, the risk was the same for BSE, Scrapie, and CWD to humans ;

Clearly, it is premature to draw firm conclusions about CWD passing naturally into humans, cattle and sheep, but the present results suggest that CWD transmissions to humans would be as limited by PrP incompatibility as transmissions of BSE or sheep scrapie to humans. Although there is no evidence that sheep scrapie has affected humans, it is likely that BSE has caused variant CJD in 74 people (definite and probable variant CJD cases to date according to the UK CJD Surveillance Unit). Given the presumably large number of people exposed to BSE infectivity, the susceptibility of humans may still be very low compared with cattle, which would be consistent with the relatively inefficient conversion of human PrP-sen by PrPBSE. Nonetheless, since humans have apparently been infected by BSE, it would seem prudent to take reasonable measures to limit exposure of humans (as well as sheep and cattle) to CWD infectivity as has been recommended for other animal TSEs.

THEN, 11 years later you get this 2011 ;

Our findings demonstrate that cervid PrPSc, upon strain adaptation by serial passages in vitro or in cervid transgenic mice, is capable of converting human PrPC to produce PrPSc with unique biochemical properties, likely representing a new human prion strain. The newly generated CWD-huPrPSc material has been inoculated into transgenic mice expressing human PrP to study infectivity and disease phenotype and this data will be published elsewhere. ...end


Generation of a new form of human PrPSc in vitro by inter-species transmission from cervids prions

Marcelo A. Barria1, Glenn C. Telling2, Pierluigi Gambetti3, James A. Mastrianni4 and Claudio Soto5,* + Author Affiliations

1 University of Texas Medical School at Houston, United States; 2 University of Kentucky, United States; 3 Case Western Reserve University, United States; 4 University of Chicago, United States; 5 University of Texas Medical School, United States * Corresponding author; email:

Received October 28, 2010. Accepted January 4, 2011. Copyright © 2011, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

then you had this data ;


October 1994

Mr R.N. Elmhirst Chairman British Deer Farmers Association Holly Lodge Spencers Lane BerksWell Coventry CV7 7BZ

Dear Mr Elmhirst,


Thank you for your recent letter concerning the publication of the third annual report from the CJD Surveillance Unit. I am sorry that you are dissatisfied with the way in which this report was published.

The Surveillance Unit is a completely independant outside body and the Department of Health is committed to publishing their reports as soon as they become available. In the circumstances it is not the practice to circulate the report for comment since the findings of the report would not be amended. In future we can ensure that the British Deer Farmers Association receives a copy of the report in advance of publication.

The Chief Medical Officer has undertaken to keep the public fully informed of the results of any research in respect of CJD. This report was entirely the work of the unit and was produced completely independantly of the the Department.

The statistical results reqarding the consumption of venison was put into perspective in the body of the report and was not mentioned at all in the press release. Media attention regarding this report was low key but gave a realistic presentation of the statistical findings of the Unit. This approach to publication was successful in that consumption of venison was highlighted only once by the media ie. in the News at one television proqramme.

I believe that a further statement about the report, or indeed statistical links between CJD and consumption of venison, would increase, and quite possibly give damaging credence, to the whole issue. From the low key media reports of which I am aware it seems unlikely that venison consumption will suffer adversely, if at all.

and why do we not want to do TSE transmission studies on chimpanzees $


5. A positive result from a chimpanzee challenged severly would likely create alarm in some circles even if the result could not be interpreted for man. I have a view that all these agents could be transmitted provided a large enough dose by appropriate routes was given and the animals kept long enough. Until the mechanisms of the species barrier are more clearly understood it might be best to retain that hypothesis.



From: TSS (


Date: September 30, 2002 at 7:06 am PST

From: "Belay, Ermias"


Cc: "Race, Richard (NIH)" ; ; "Belay, Ermias"

Sent: Monday, September 30, 2002 9:22 AM


Dear Sir/Madam, In the Archives of Neurology you quoted (the abstract of which was attached to your email), we did not say CWD in humans will present like variant CJD.

That assumption would be wrong. I encourage you to read the whole article and call me if you have questions or need more clarification (phone: 404-639-3091). Also, we do not claim that "no-one has ever been infected with prion disease from eating venison." Our conclusion stating that we found no strong evidence of CWD transmission to humans in the article you quoted or in any other forum is limited to the patients we investigated.

Ermias Belay, M.D. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

-----Original Message-----


Sent: Sunday, September 29, 2002 10:15 AM

To: [log in to unmask]">[log in to unmask]; [log in to unmask]">[log in to unmask]; [log in to unmask]">[log in to unmask]


Sunday, November 10, 2002 6:26 PM ......snip........end..............TSS


full text ;

FDA is not recalling this CWD positive elk meat for the well being of the dead elk ;

Wednesday, March 18, 2009

Noah's Ark Holding, LLC, Dawson, MN RECALL Elk products contain meat derived from an elk confirmed to have CWD NV, CA, TX, CO, NY, UT, FL, OK RECALLS AND FIELD CORRECTIONS: FOODS CLASS II

see full text ;

Chronic Wasting Disease Susceptibility of Four North American Rodents

Chad J. Johnson1*, Jay R. Schneider2, Christopher J. Johnson2, Natalie A. Mickelsen2, Julia A. Langenberg3, Philip N. Bochsler4, Delwyn P. Keane4, Daniel J. Barr4, and Dennis M. Heisey2 1University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Comparative Biosciences, 1656 Linden Drive, Madison WI 53706, USA 2US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison WI 53711, USA 3Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, 101 South Webster Street, Madison WI 53703, USA 4Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Lab, 445 Easterday Lane, Madison WI 53706, USA *Corresponding author email:

We intracerebrally challenged four species of native North American rodents that inhabit locations undergoing cervid chronic wasting disease (CWD) epidemics. The species were: deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), white-footed mice (P. leucopus), meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), and red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi). The inocula were prepared from the brains of hunter-harvested white-tailed deer from Wisconsin that tested positive for CWD. Meadow voles proved to be most susceptible, with a median incubation period of 272 days. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of PrPd in the brains of all challenged meadow voles. Subsequent passages in meadow voles lead to a significant reduction in incubation period. The disease progression in red-backed voles, which are very closely related to the European bank vole (M. glareolus) which have been demonstrated to be sensitive to a number of TSEs, was slower than in meadow voles with a median incubation period of 351 days. We sequenced the meadow vole and red-backed vole Prnp genes and found three amino acid (AA) differences outside of the signal and GPI anchor sequences. Of these differences (T56-, G90S, S170N; read-backed vole:meadow vole), S170N is particularly intriguing due its postulated involvement in "rigid loop" structure and CWD susceptibility. Deer mice did not exhibit disease signs until nearly 1.5 years post-inoculation, but appear to be exhibiting a high degree of disease penetrance. White-footed mice have an even longer incubation period but are also showing high penetrance. Second passage experiments show significant shortening of incubation periods. Meadow voles in particular appear to be interesting lab models for CWD. These rodents scavenge carrion, and are an important food source for many predator species. Furthermore, these rodents enter human and domestic livestock food chains by accidental inclusion in grain and forage. Further investigation of these species as potential hosts, bridge species, and reservoirs of CWD is required.

Potential Venison Exposure Among FoodNet Population Survey Respondents, 2006-2007

Ryan A. Maddox1*, Joseph Y. Abrams1, Robert C. Holman1, Lawrence B. Schonberger1, Ermias D. Belay1 Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA *Corresponding author e-mail:

The foodborne transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to humans, resulting in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, indicates that humans can be susceptible to animal prion diseases. However, it is not known whether foodborne exposure to the agent causing chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids can cause human disease. The United States Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) conducts surveillance for foodborne diseases through an extensive survey administered to respondents in selected states. To describe the frequency of deer and elk hunting and venison consumption, five questions were included in the 2006-2007 FoodNet survey. This survey included 17,372 respondents in ten states: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. Of these respondents, 3,220 (18.5%) reported ever hunting deer or elk, with 217 (1.3%) reporting hunting in a CWD-endemic area (northeastern Colorado, southeastern Wyoming, and southwestern Nebraska). Of the 217 CWD-endemic area hunters, 74 (34.1%) were residents of Colorado. Respondents reporting hunting were significantly more likely to be male than female (prevalence ratio: 3.3, 95% confidence interval: 3.1-3.6) and, in general, older respondents were significantly more likely to report hunting than younger respondents. Venison consumption was reported by more than half (67.4%) of the study population, and most venison consumers (94.1%) reported that at least half of their venison came from the wild. However, more than half (59.1%) of the consumers reported eating venison only one to five times in their life or only once or twice a year. These findings indicate that a high percentage of the United States population engages in hunting and/or venison consumption. If CWD continues to spread to more areas across the country, a substantial number of people could potentially be exposed to the infectious agent.


Wednesday, September 08, 2010



Generation of a Novel form of Human PrPSc by Inter-species Transmission of Cervid Prions

Marcelo A. Barria,1 Glenn C. Telling,2 Pierluigi Gambetti,3 James A. Mastrianni4 and Claudio Soto1 1Mitchell Center for Alzheimer’s disease and related Brain disorders; Dept of Neurology; University of Texas Houston Medical School; Houston, TX USA; 2Dept of Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics and Neurology; Sanders Brown Center on Aging; University of Kentucky Medical Center; Lexington, KY USA; 3Institute of Pathology; Case western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA; 4Dept of Neurology; University of Chicago; Chicago, IL USA

Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and animals that result from the conversion of normal prion protein (PrPC) into the misfolded and infectious prion (PrPSc). Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids is a prion disorder of increasing prevalence within the United States that affects a large population of wild and captive deer and elk. CWD is highly contagious and its origin, mechanism of transmission and exact prevalence are currently unclear. The risk of transmission of CWD to humans is unknown. Defining that risk is of utmost importance, considering that people have been infected by animal prions, resulting in new fatal diseases. To study the possibility that human PrPC can be converted into the infectious form by CWD PrPSc we performed experiments using the Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCA) technique, which mimic in vitro the process of prion replication. Our results show that cervid PrPSc can induce the pathological conversion of human PrPC, but only after the CWD prion strain has been stabilized by successive passages in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, this newly generated human PrPSc exhibits a distinct biochemical pattern that differs from any of the currently known forms of human PrPSc, indicating that it corresponds to a novel human prion strain. Our findings suggest that CWD prions have the capability to infect humans, and that this ability depends on CWD strain adaptation, implying that the risk for human health progressively increases with the spread of CWD among cervids.


Prion Transmission from Cervids to Humans is Strain-dependent

Qingzhong Kong, Shenghai Huang,*Fusong Chen, Michael Payne, Pierluigi Gambetti and Liuting Qing Department of Pathology; Case western Reserve University; Cleveland, OH USA *Current address: Nursing Informatics; Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center; New York, NY USA

Key words: CWD, strain, human transmission

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a widespread prion disease in cervids (deer and elk) in North America where significant human exposure to CWD is likely and zoonotic transmission of CWD is a concern. Current evidence indicates a strong barrier for transmission of the classical CWD strain to humans with the PrP-129MM genotype. A few recent reports suggest the presence of two or more CWD strains. What remain unknown is whether individuals with the PrP-129VV/MV genotypes are also resistant to the classical CWD strain and whether humans are resistant to all natural or adapted cervid prion strains. Here we report that a human prion strain that had adopted the cervid prion protein (PrP) sequence through passage in cervidized transgenic mice efficiently infected transgenic mice expressing human PrP, indicating that the species barrier from cervid to humans is prion strain-dependent and humans can be vulnerable to novel cervid prion strains. Preliminary results on CWD transmission in transgenic mice expressing human PrP-129V will also be discussed.

Acknowledgement Supported by NINDS NS052319 and NIA AG14359.


Biochemical and Biophysical Characterization of Different CWD Isolates

Martin L. Daus and Michael Beekes Robert Koch Institute; Berlin, Germany

Key words: CWD, strains, FT-IR, AFM

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is one of three naturally occurring forms of prion disease. The other two are Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and scrapie in sheep. CWD is contagious and affects captive as well as free ranging cervids. As long as there is no definite answer of whether CWD can breach the species barrier to humans precautionary measures especially for the protection of consumers need to be considered. In principle, different strains of CWD may be associated with different risks of transmission to humans. Sophisticated strain differentiation as accomplished for other prion diseases has not yet been established for CWD. However, several different findings indicate that there exists more than one strain of CWD agent in cervids. We have analysed a set of CWD isolates from white-tailed deer and could detect at least two biochemically different forms of disease-associated prion protein PrPTSE. Limited proteolysis with different concentrations of proteinase K and/or after exposure of PrPTSE to different pH-values or concentrations of Guanidinium hydrochloride resulted in distinct isolate-specific digestion patterns. Our CWD isolates were also examined in protein misfolding cyclic amplification studies. This showed different conversion activities for those isolates that had displayed significantly different sensitivities to limited proteolysis by PK in the biochemical experiments described above. We further applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in combination with atomic force microscopy. This confirmed structural differences in the PrPTSE of at least two disinct CWD isolates. The data presented here substantiate and expand previous reports on the existence of different CWD strains.


CWD Strain Emergence in Orally Inoculated White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with Different PRNP Genotypes

Camilo Duque-Velasquez,1 Chad Johnson,2 Allen Herbst,1 Judd Aiken1 and Debbie McKenzie1 1Centre for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases; University of Alberta; Edmonton, Alberta Canada; 2Department of Soil Science; University of Wisconsin; Madison, Wisconsin USA

Key words: CWD, strains, emergence

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease affecting captive and free-ranging cervids in North America. We have previously demonstrated that specific Prnp polymorphisms are linked to susceptibility/resistance to CWD infection in free-ranging white-tailed deer populations. The “wild-type” alleles (with glutamine at aa 95 and a Glycine at aa 96) were over-represented in the infected deer while the polymorphisms at aa 95 (Q95H) and 96 (G96S) were under-represented in the CWD-positive animals. Experimental oral infection of white-tailed deer with known Prnp genotypes (with inocula from CWD-positive wt/wt deer) confirmed this link between Prnp primary sequence and incubation period. All orally infected animals became clinically positive for CWD. The wt/wt had the shortest incubation period (693 dpi) and the Q95H/G96S the longest (1596 dpi). Brain homogenates prepared from clinically affected deer of each genotype were treated with proteinase K and resolved by western blot; differences in the glycosylation pattern and PK resistance were observed and are suggestive of different PrPSc isoforms. Subsequent experiments regarding biochemical properties like detergent solubility, structural stability, host range and the stability of these characteristics upon serial passages will allow us to further define potential CWD strain emergence in white-tailed deer.


----- Original Message -----

From: David Colby


Cc: stanley@XXXXXXXX

Sent: Tuesday, March 01, 2011 8:25 AM

Subject: Re: FW: re-Prions David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2 + Author Affiliations

Dear Terry Singeltary,

Thank you for your correspondence regarding the review article Stanley Prusiner and I recently wrote for Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives. Dr. Prusiner asked that I reply to your message due to his busy schedule. We agree that the transmission of CWD prions to beef livestock would be a troubling development and assessing that risk is important. In our article, we cite a peer-reviewed publication reporting confirmed cases of laboratory transmission based on stringent criteria. The less stringent criteria for transmission described in the abstract you refer to lead to the discrepancy between your numbers and ours and thus the interpretation of the transmission rate. We stand by our assessment of the literature--namely that the transmission rate of CWD to bovines appears relatively low, but we recognize that even a low transmission rate could have important implications for public health and we thank you for bringing attention to this matter.

Warm Regards, David Colby


David Colby, PhDAssistant ProfessorDepartment of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of Delaware


Wednesday, January 5, 2011



David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2


CWD to cattle figures CORRECTION


I believe the statement and quote below is incorrect ;

"CWD has been transmitted to cattle after intracerebral inoculation, although the infection rate was low (4 of 13 animals [Hamir et al. 2001]). This finding raised concerns that CWD prions might be transmitted to cattle grazing in contaminated pastures."

Please see ;

Within 26 months post inoculation, 12 inoculated animals had lost weight, revealed abnormal clinical signs, and were euthanatized. Laboratory tests revealed the presence of a unique pattern of the disease agent in tissues of these animals. These findings demonstrate that when CWD is directly inoculated into the brain of cattle, 86% of inoculated cattle develop clinical signs of the disease.

" although the infection rate was low (4 of 13 animals [Hamir et al. 2001]). "

shouldn't this be corrected, 86% is NOT a low rate. ...

kindest regards,

Terry S. Singeltary Sr. P.O. Box 42 Bacliff, Texas USA 77518

Thank you!

Thanks so much for your updates/comments. We intend to publish as rapidly as possible all updates/comments that contribute substantially to the topic under discussion.

please see full text of my submission here ;

Wednesday, January 5, 2011



David W. Colby1,* and Stanley B. Prusiner1,2

Sunday, March 27, 2011


Wednesday, February 16, 2011




Increased Atypical Scrapie Detections

Press reports indicate that increased surveillance is catching what otherwise would have been unreported findings of atypical scrapie in sheep. In 2009, five new cases have been reported in Quebec, Ontario, Alberta, and Saskatchewan. With the exception of Quebec, all cases have been diagnosed as being the atypical form found in older animals. Canada encourages producers to join its voluntary surveillance program in order to gain scrapie-free status. The World Animal Health will not classify Canada as scrapie-free until no new cases are reported for seven years. The Canadian Sheep Federation is calling on the government to fund a wider surveillance program in order to establish the level of prevalence prior to setting an eradication date. Besides long-term testing, industry is calling for a compensation program for farmers who report unusual deaths in their flocks.

Friday, February 11, 2011

Atypical/Nor98 Scrapie Infectivity in Sheep Peripheral Tissues


The presence of infectivity in peripheral tissues that enter the food chain clearly indicates that the risk of dietary exposure to Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cannot be disregarded. However, according to our observations, in comparison to the brain, the infectious titres in the peripheral tissues were five log10 lower in Atypical/Nor98 scrapie than in classical scrapie. Therefore, the reduction of the relative exposure risk following SRM removal (CNS, head, spleen and ileum) is probably significantly higher in Atypical/Nor98 scrapie cases than in classical scrapie cases. However, considering the currently estimated prevalence of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie in healthy slaughtered EU population [10], it is probable that atypical scrapie infectivity enters in the food chain despite the prevention measures in force.

Finally, the capacity of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie agent (and more generally of small ruminants TSE agents) to cross species barrier that naturally limits the transmission risk is insufficiently documented. Recently, the transmission of an Atypical/Nor98 scrapie isolate was reported into transgenic mice over-expressing the porcine PrP [47]. Such results cannot directly be extrapolated to natural exposure conditions and natural hosts. However, they underline the urgent need for further investigations on the potential capacity of Atypical/Nor98 scrapie to propagate in other species than small ruminants.

snip...please see full text thanks to the Authors and;jsessionid=CECDA9978AB8F920FB2ED52F4EB71071.ambra01

Background ----------- "Retrospective studies have identified cases predating the initial identification of this form of scrapie, and epidemiological studies have indicated that it does not conform to the behaviour of an infectious disease, giving rise to the hypothesis that it represents spontaneous disease. However, atypical scrapie isolates have been shown to be infectious experimentally, through intracerebral inoculation in transgenic mice and sheep. [Many of the neurological diseases can be transmitted by intracerebral inoculation, which causes this moderator to approach intracerebral studies as a tool for study, but not necessarily as a direct indication of transmissibility of natural diseases. - Mod.TG]

"The 1st successful challenge of a sheep with 'field' atypical scrapie from an homologous donor sheep was reported in 2007.

"Results -------- "This study demonstrates that atypical scrapie has distinct clinical, pathological, and biochemical characteristics which are maintained on transmission and sub-passage, and which are distinct from other strains of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in the same host genotype.

"Conclusions ------------ Atypical scrapie is consistently transmissible within AHQ homozygous sheep, and the disease phenotype is preserved on sub-passage."

Lastly, this moderator wishes to thank Terry Singletary for some of his behind the scenes work of providing citations and references for this posting. - Mod.TG]

The HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Australia is available at . - Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ],F2400_P1001_PUB_MAIL_ID:1000,81729


The two Commissions discussed the issue of ‘atypical’ scrapie in terms of notification requirements and the issue of the host genetic resistance. In response to questions of Members, the Code Commission clarified that ‘classical’ scrapie is reportable to the OIE but that ‘atypical’ scrapie is not reportable (in accordance with the recommendations made by the ad hoc Group on Atypical Scrapie and Atypical BSE, which met in November 2007). However, the sharing of scientific information on ‘atypical’ scrapie is encouraged. At this time, the Code Commission considered that more scientific information would be needed to fully address the issues associated with host genotype.

EU comment


OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Standards Commission / September 2010

The EU takes note of the fact that atypical scrapie is not an OIE listed disease. Nevertheless, it will remain notifiable in the EU. Moreover it must be stressed that any emergence of this disease should be notified to the OIE by Members and that scientific data should continue to be gathered.


Zoonotic Potential

Has transmission to humans been proven? (with the exception of artificial

circumstances) AND

Is human infection associated with severe consequences? (death or prolonged illness)


Sunday, December 12, 2010

EFSA reviews BSE/TSE infectivity in small ruminant tissues News Story 2 December 2010

Monday, November 22, 2010

Atypical transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in ruminants: a challenge for disease surveillance and control


Sunday, April 18, 2010


Saturday, December 18, 2010

OIE Global Conference on Wildlife Animal Health and Biodiversity - Preparing for the Future (TSE AND PRIONS) Paris (France), 23-25 February 2011


Greens call for ban on federal GMO research Apr 10, 2011 11:45 PM


The party said it would also aim to tighten Canada's testing net for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in slaughter cattle by implementing "100 per cent" testing of all slaughtered animals, but only "as soon as the process of detecting BSE in blood samples is perfected." The party also calls for ensuring no "animal byproducts" are used in ruminant animal feed....


Green Party MPs will develop a National Agricultural and Food Policy which:

Improves Food Safety by:

• Amending the Canadian Food Inspection Agency mandate to remove any obligation to promote Canadian agri-business, ensuring the focus is on food safety and food safety only, with enhanced resources for inspection and monitoring.

• Ensuring the quality and wholesomeness of food by strengthening the monitoring of pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, growth hormones, non-therapeutic antibiotics and insecticides in food production, processing and storage, with the goal of an orderly reduction in detectable residues of these substances until they reach undetectable limits.

• Establishing federally funded, community-guided school lunch programs across Canada to ensure that our children have daily access to healthy local food and can learn about sustainable food production and healthy eating.

• Strengthening Plant Protection and Health of Animals Programs with measures to ensure the integrity of farm food products.

• Improving and strengthening the Canadian Organic Standard.

• Providing transitional assistance for those switching to certified organic farming practices.

• Ensuring that no animal by-products are used in ruminant animal feed.

• Strengthen testing for BSE by implementing 100% testing (testing of every slaughtered animal) as soon as the process of detecting BSE in blood samples is perfected.

Vision Green April 2011

Wednesday, April 13, 2011

Joint consultation by the FSA, Defra and Welsh Assembly Government on proposed changes to BSE testing of cattle slaughtered for human consumption

Wednesday, March 9, 2011

27 U.S. Senators want to force feed Japan Highly Potential North America Mad Cow Beef TSE PRION CJD March 8, 2011

President Barack Obama The White House

1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, W Washington, DC 20500

Dear President Obama:

Monday, May 11, 2009

Rare BSE mutation raises concerns over risks to public health

Saturday, March 5, 2011